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Gangrenous mastitis sheep

Staphylococci were isolated from the udder of dead sheep and sheep that were emergency-slaughtered because of a gangrenous mastitis infection. The organisms proved to be hemolytic and mannite- and catalase-positive, and were referred to various phage types, being most frequently lysed by phages 78 and 42E. Toxi In very severe cases, gangrene may develop in the mammary gland and the ewe may die. A wide range of microorganisms cause mastitis in sheep but, most cases are reported to be due to Staphylococci infection (Bergonier and Berthelot, 2003). This clinical case report describes the surgical management of gangrenous mastitis in an ewe Mastitis in goats and sheep, similar to cows, is defined as inflammation of the mammary gland and can occurs due several factors, which may be infectious or not and may present in clinical or subclinical form. In clinical mastitis, it is possible to observe the signs of inflammation, such as

Mastitis can be an important disease in sheep, with an incidence >2%. In addition to deaths from severe infections, the disease can be a cause of lamb mortality from starvation or of depressed weaning weights of lambs. Peracute, gangrenous (usually due to Staphylococcus aureus), acute, subacute, and probably subclinical types occur The bacteria which are known to cause mastitis in cows, sheep and goats are Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Pasteurella sp., and coliforms, such as E. coli. Mastitis is usually observed shortly after lambing until the post-weaning period. It can take on several forms Mastitis is an important disease of sheep and goats because it decreases the amount and quality of the milk produced by a dairy animal and reduces weight gain in lambs and meat kids. It can also affects animal wellbeing. Mastitis is an inflammation of udder. Physical injury, stress, or bacteria can cause mastitis Mastitis is a significant ewe health problem for both dairy and meat sheep farmers world-wide. In UK lowland flocks, acute mastitis affects between 4-5% of ewes each year and in hill flocks, it affects 1-2% of ewes. Chronic mastitis is estimated to affect between 1-15% of ewes

Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland, or udder, of sheep, goats and cows. This inflammation can be caused by stress, injury or bacteria, the strains of which can be Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Pasteurella sp., and coliforms, such as E. coli Symptoms of acute mastitis include ewes going off feed, depression, swelling and hardness of udder and unilateral lameness. Generally there is a foul smelling reddish secretion from teat. Udder may feel cool, normal, or warm. Crepitation would indicate gangrene

[Specific prophylaxis of gangrenous mastitis in sheep]

  1. Clinical mastitis is an inflammatory response to infection causing visibly abnormal milk (eg, color, fibrin clots). As the extent of the inflammation increases, changes in the udder (swelling, heat, pain, redness) may also be apparent. Clinical cases that include only local signs are referred to as mild or moderate
  2. ation of the udder.
  3. Gangrenous mastitis in goats is typified by a sudden onset, dark hyperemia, and edema with progressive discoloration of the distal part of the udder. The disease affected lactating goats but not the dry ones. Coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 60% of composite and half milk samples obtained from the diseased goats

Gangrenous mastitis (black/blue bag) is an infectious disease that can cause gangrene of the mammary gland (which becomes red-purple, hot, and painful) in 50% of the cases and even the death of affected sheep.Control by vaccination significantly reduces the chances of developing the disease in both types of agalactia (white spot disease/blue bag) Many people in Africa keep livestock species but are often faced with serious challenges like access to veterinarians, poor concept of breeding and diseases...

Mannheimia haemolytica is known to be an important cause of intramammary infection in sheep. It usually causes severe clinical mastitis, followed by toxaemia and gangrenous necrosis of the udder. However there are limited data available on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of mastitis associated with Mannheimia species. These organisms can be more significant as a cause of mastitis than. Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy sheep ranges from subclinical mastitis to lethal gangrenous mastitis. Neither the S. aureus virulence factors nor the host-factors or the epidemiological events contributing to the different outcomes are known. In a field study in a dairy sheep farm over 21 mo Radical mastectomy (unilateral or bilateral) is a salvage procedure in the cases of gangrenous mastitis, neoplasia or hyperplastic conditions of the udder. For goats with gangrenous mastitis, unilateral mastectomy can be an option that will allow the other mammary gland to continue lactation The pathogens causing mastitis in goats Clinical Mastitis. Several pathogens can infect the goat udder, but the most severe is mastitis caused by S. aureus.Although sporadic, clinical mastitis caused by S. aureus may result in gangrenous mastitis, characterized by necrotic udder tissue which will eventually cause the udder to fall off, and the animal will die

Mastitis is the term for a bacterial infection of the udder. It is most common in ewes raising multiple lambs or with high milk production. Most cases occur during the first weeks after lambing or immediately before weaning. Good ewe nutrition and providing a clean lambing environment are important factors in reducing the incidence of mastitis Mastitis is predominately caused by bacteria, but other causes include viral infection, eg mastitis is a symptom of Maedi Visna, which is a viral disease affecting sheep. The first line of defence for the udder is the teat end, which has a sphincter that closes to protect the teat canal and prevents entry of bacteria $345 per case of clinical mastitis (Carrier 2009). A study that analysed records from 22 herds in the USA revealed that the cost of subclinical mastitis is about $285 based on loss of 718 kg of milk during the first 210 days of lactation (Kirkpatrick and Olson 2015). Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated contagious mastitis. Tagged: gangrene mastitis in sheep, Jacob Calendar, jacob lambs, Jacob Sheep, Jacob Sheep Breeder's Association, JSBA, Lilac Jacob. 3 Comments. Aimee is a very special girl with a special story She arrived here in 2005 in a round about way..

Mastitis can be an important disease in sheep, with an incidence >2%. In addition to deaths from severe infections, the disease can be a cause of lamb mortality from starvation or of depressed weaning weights of lambs. Peracute, gangrenous (usually due to Staphylococcus aureus ), acute, subacute, and probably subclinical types occur LIKE VIDEO, SUBSCRIBE THE CHANNEL IntroductionGangrenous mastitis occurs sporadically during the first three months of lactation often a..

Mastitis: An Issue Not to be Taken Lightly OSU Sheep Tea

Staphylococcus aureus proteins differentially produced in ewe gangrenous mastitis or ewe milk. Le Maréchal C(1), Jardin J, Briard-Bion V, Rault L, Berkova N, Vautor E, Thiéry R, Even S, Le Loir Y. Author information: (1)INRA, UMR1253, Science et Technologie du Lait et de l'Œuf, F-35042 Rennes, France gangrenous mastitis in sheep raised in this region. S. aureus. in milk samples could be more rapidly detected by PCR method. Two coa genotype of . S. aureus were . found to be common suggesting that limited number of strains were responsible for most cases of gangrenous mastitis in the region under the study

There are no NAS reports causing gangrenous mastitis in sheep to the best of our knowledge. Several studies using molecular tools have suggested that NAS are acquiring virulence factors that might be able to facilitate their transformation into potential clinical mastitis agents (Cunha et al. 2006, Pyörälä & Taponen 2009, Dando et al. 2014) Staphylococci were isolated from the udder of dead sheep and sheep that were emergency-slaughtered because of a gangrenous mastitis infection. The organisms proved to be hemolytic and mannite- and catalase-positive, and were referred to various phage types, being most frequently lysed by phages 78 and 42E Any breeder knows the typical clinical form of S. aureus mastitis: the so-called 'gangrenous' mastitis, which should be referred to as necrotic mastitis ('blue-bag' for English-speaking meat sheep breeders). S. aureus clinical mastitis. Other significant causative organisms of sporadic clinical mastitis are coagulase-negative.

Main pathogen bacteria causing mastitis in ewes are Staphylococcus aureus and Pasteurella haemolytica (1). S. aureus-caused mastitis beginning with color changes in the skin produces gangrenous mastitis with severe general and local conditions. Systemic symptoms are high fever (40.5-42 C), anorexia, and difficult breathing within 1-2 days Registered. Joined Apr 18, 2010. ·. 635 Posts. Discussion Starter · #1 · Oct 17, 2010. I am currently dealing with a case of Gangrene Mastitis that came on suddenly to a dry doe. I'd be happy to post pics and chronicle treatment if anyone is interested. This isn't pretty stuff. It's my second case, the first happened to this doe's mother.

The pathogens causing mastitis in goats Clinical Mastitis. Several pathogens can infect the goat udder, but the most severe is mastitis caused by S. aureus.Although sporadic, clinical mastitis caused by S. aureus may result in gangrenous mastitis, characterized by necrotic udder tissue which will eventually cause the udder to fall off, and the animal will die Sheep and goats also suffer from infectious mastitis, Keeping in mind the prognosis of gangrenous mastitis, treatment was started without waiting for milk culture sensitivity test. Acute gangrenous mastitis due to staphylococcus aureus in a crossbred cow Mastitis (bluebag) Mastitis is an infectious disease of sheep. There are two recognized types of mastitis, but the gangrenous type (bluebag) is more severe. With bluebag, gangrene develops rapidly in the udder; ewes become sick, depressed, and feverish

Staphylococcus aureus is a highly prevalent cause of mastitis in dairy herds worldwide, capable of causing outcomes that vary from subclinical to peracute gangrenous mastitis. We performed a comparative genomic analysis between 14 isolates of S. aureus, originating from peracute bovine mastitis with very severe signs (9 gangrenous, 5 non-gangrenous) and six isolates originating from. epidemiology and control of mastitis in sheep. Other studiesincludethoseofPaapeetal.(2001),whoexplored the feasibility of indirectly diagnosing mastitis in small ruminants by using MSCC, and of Gonzalo (2004), who recently discussed the analytical, health, productive and technological aspects of performing MSCC in sheep and goat milk. 2 Breeding programs for mastitis resistance in dairy cattle, sheep and goat make use of the somatic cell score (SCS) as a selection criterion [1,2,3].Divergent SCS-based selection experiments in sheep and goats have shown that the low SCS groups were more resistant to mastitis under field conditions [4, 5].This is particularly true of infections with staphylococci, which are responsible for the. Goats and sheep present more frequently than other species, the most severe picture of mastitis, gangrenous mastitis. This type of mastitis is caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Clostridium perfringens. In the initial phase, the animals present a systemic picture with fever followed by hypothermia. The present report describes an unusual case of combined infection by S. aureus, E. coli and C. perfringens isolated from gangrenous mastitis in goat.A three-year-old goat, Boer breed, was referred to the Veterinary Hospital, presenting peracute clinical signs of mastitis in the right side of mammary gland, two weeks after the parturition

Mastitis in Ewes - Reproductive System - Merck Veterinary

It is common in most sheep flocks, especially range ewes. Be sure to keep poor doing, Bluebag is a severe form of mastitis and is caused by bacteria which enter through the teat to the udder. This reduced blood supply causes a blue discoloration and if there is a complete loss of blood supply, gangrene, with sloughing off that half of. Grade 3 in small ruminants is often related to gangrenous mastitis which leads t the death of the animal or the complete loss of one of the halfs. Subclinical mastitis: Sub-clinical mastitis is most commonly recognized by detecting the inflammatory process in the udder by testing a sample of milk

Mastitis In Ewes and Does Cornell University College of

  1. Acute mastitis in a goat, Edema of the skin andcaused by Mycoplasma discoloration of the udder agalactiae) contagious parenchyma) gangrenous )agalactia )mastitis Histological section showing Note the purple a large, red discoloration of the stained fibrin udder and the limp thrombus within teat) gangrenous an artery )mastitis )gangrenous )mastitis
  2. Clinical mastitis is an important disease in sheep. The objective of this work was to identify causal bacteria and study certain epidemiological and clinical features of clinical mastitis in ewes kept for meat and wool production. The study included 509 ewes with clinical mastitis from 353 flocks located in 14 of the 19 counties in Norway
  3. Gangrenous mastitis is relatively uncommon but often fatal mastitis of sheep, goats, and cattle. Affected cows always lose the quarter of the mammary gland that is involved and sometimes the patient dies, too. Because most of the cases are caused by gram-positive organisms, procaine penicillin containing intramammary infusions are used
  4. E supplementation during the dry period in dairy cattle. Part I: Adverse effect on incidence of mastitis postpartum in a double-blind randomized field trial
  5. Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy sheep ranges from subclinical mastitis to lethal gangrenous mastitis. Neither the S. aureus virulence factors nor the host-factors or the epidemiological events contributing to the different outcomes are known. In a field study in a dairy sheep farm over 21 months, 16 natural isolates of S. aureus were collected from six subclinical mastitis cases, one.
  6. The results demonstrated that S. aureus isolates from gangrenous mastitis were mainly resistant to penicillins Simko, S. and Bartko, P. (1996): Antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in sheep, sheep milk and its products. Vet. Med. (Praha). 41, 241-244
  7. e, formaldehyde and slaked lime. The 5 strains of Micrococcus did not differ in susceptibility to the.

Mastitis in sheep and goats - Sheep & Goat

  1. Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland (udder of milk-giving gland) of animals, usually caused by bacteria. Staphylococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp., Streptococcus spp., or coliforms cause over 95% of all cases. Mastitis is usually characterized as clinical when symptoms are present or subclinical symptoms appear periodically
  2. Gangrenous mastitis by Staphilococcus aureus is the most common cause of mammary disorders in sheep meat flocks in Spain. It is usually related to wounds made by lambs sucking strongly. Furthermore, the high infectivity of the process makes it very dangerous when one case appears in a farm. In this paper it is described an outbreak of acute.
  3. sheep production, it might be necessary to use three or more breeds to develop a ewe flock that exhibits accept-able levels of desirable traits. Accelerated flocks must be able to lamb out of season, produce large lamb crops, reach sexual maturity at an early age, and grow rapidly
  4. Bacteria are the main cause of mastitis in sheep in Australia. The most common cause of acute clinical mastitis is Staphylococcus aureus, either alone or in mixed infections. Gangrenous mastitis is commonly caused by S. aureus and Escherichia coli
( A) Changes in udder in the early stage of gangrenous

gangrenous mastitis. Uncomplicated cases of contagious ecthyma usually resolve within 1 to 2 months. Severe cases, with more generalized and/or persistent inoculation into sheep, with electron microscopy to confirm a parapoxvirus in lesions from the sheep Malignant Edema (Gas Gangrene) usually caused by the bacterium Clostridium septicum, other forms of Clostridium spp. could possibly, cause the same kind of would infection in goats. Transmission: The disease starts when a cut or some other type of wound is contaminated with the bacteria The mastitis pathogens in dairy cows. Contagious pathogens that cause mastitis tend to live on the cow's udder and teat skin and transfer from affected cow (or quarter) to unaffected cow (or quarter) during milking. They adhere easily to the skin, colonising the teat end and then 'grow' into the teat canal, where infection occurs; because of this, post-milking teat disinfection and dry cow. Fig 8: Gangrenous mastitis following CPD lesion on ewe's teat Economics. Contagious pustular dermatitis is a significant problem in orphans lambs and other ill-thriven lambs, CPD is less of a problem in well-fed, well-thriven stock. The vaccine is inexpensive but the procedure is time-consuming and there is the risk of human infection Gangrenous mastitis in goats is a severe clinical condition of the inflammatory process in mammary glands. Clinical signs commonly occur in the first weeks of lactation, committing one or two sides of the glands and are characterized by fever, anorexia, dyspnea and systemic signs of toxemia

Treating Mastitis in Sheep and Goats - Ozarks Farm

Cows. AC Petfoods offers collection of unwanted cows as well as injured stock. MPI requirements are from time of yarding, the psychological needs of the animal are adequately addressed. The animal needs to be in suitable facilities to minimize distress or injury and ease of shooting. Small holding paddock or yard is ideal Mastitis is the single most common disease syndrome in adult dairy cows. Numerous bacterial species isolated from the mammary gland; most common are Staphylococcus aureus and coliforms (namely Coli ) Majority of cases are opportunistic, and may be associated with iatrogenic infection or environmental contamination, but bacterial species such as.

Gangrenous Mastitis - Sheep Mastitis Therapy Streptococcal Mastitis - Cattle Summer Mastitis. Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of mastitis in cattle worldwide; Corynebacterium bovis. Inflammatory disease of the mammary gland - mastitis. In general, the production species are prone to inflammation rather then neoplasia (cf. carnivores) GANGRENOUS MASTITIS IN DOGS myamnar model, myamnar actor, teflon pledgets, eset nod32 username and password free, minecraft username and password free, nod32 username and password latest, nod32 username and password free, plain light blue background images, itanium 9300, eset nod32 username and password, minecraft username and password, username and password for nod32, nod32 update username.

Farm Health Online – Animal Health and Welfare Knowledge

In a field study in a dairy sheep farm over 21 months, 16 natural isolates of S. aureus were collected from six subclinical mastitis cases, one lethal gangrenous mastitis case, nasal carriage from eight ewes and one isolate from ambient air in the milking room Despite being one of the main pathogens involved in ruminant mastitis, little is known about what proteins Staphylococcus aureus does express, in vivo, during the infection. Here, two S. aureus strains were isolated from curds formed within the udder of two ewes suffering from gangrenous mastitis. Protein samples were prepared from cell fractions and were analyzed using 1D-LC MS/MS. Results. The alpha haemolysin is dermonecrotic and leukocidal, and produces complete haemolysis of erythrocytes of rabbits, sheep and cattle, but it has no effect on those of humans and horses. 1 This haemolysin is thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of blue udder or gangrenous mastitis in sheep, not only because of its haemolytic and. Gangrenous mastitis of lactating ewes on 6 farms in Azerbaijan was caused by Micrococcus gangrenosae ovis (Staph. pyogenes). The highest incidence was during April and May. 2.4% of all sheep were affected in 1952, and 30.4% of those affected died or had to be slaughtered. Infection was reproduced by intramammary inoculation of the strains isolated.-R.M It is necessary to prevent the formation of such microcolonies in order to avoid the problem of chronic mastitis. In many cases clinical and gangrenous mastitis due to S. aureus is associated to alterations of the milking machinery, or to skin problems in the sheep (ecthyma, impetigo, etc.)

Mastitis is an inflamation of the mammary gland (udder). It can be caused by physical injury or stress or by bacteria which invade the mammary gland. The bacteria which are known to cause mastitis in cows, sheep and goats are Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Pasteurella sp., and coliforms, such as E. coli GANGRENOUS mastitis is a serious condition in sheep affecting 1-2% of a flock, many of which die or are put down at a later date, while their lambs suffer severe growth check, according to NADIS' latest health bulletin for Scotland grenous mastitis is caused mainly by Staph. aureus2•3> and E. co/i1-3>. Staph. aureus and C/ostridium per­ fringens were isolated from gangrenous mastitis 6>. Staph. aureus and E. coli are often present in the cow's skin and in the environment around the cow. Therefore the localization of these bacteria in th Mastitis in ewes Mastitis in ewes can be fatal and usually results in the end of her productive life. The usual presentation is acute gangrenous mastitis (blue or black bag) usually caused by either Staphylococcus Aureus or Mannheimia Haemolytica Cold, bluish skin in the case of gangrenous mastitis. Contact your veterinarian if you suspect an animal has mastitis. A clean environment with excellent mud and manure management will help lower the incidence of mastitis contracted during the dry period. Length of Dry Period. Animals should be dry for 45 to 60 days

Video: Mastitis Ask-a-Vet Shee

Mastitis in Cattle - Reproductive System - Merck

Often these go back in again on their own, but it's best to cull the sheep to avoid future problems. Mastitis Cause. This is an infection of the udder caused by various bacteria. It usually happens in the first weeks of lactation and at weaning. There are two main types - simple mastitis and gangrenous mastitis Until now, there hasn't been an USDA approved mastitis vaccine for meat and dairy goats in the USA. Meanwhile, producers in Europe have successfully administered mastitis vaccines to over 5 million goats and sheep since since 2014. The result? A reduction of 58% in clinical signs Penicillin. Posted on February 15, 2016 by Ask-a-Vet Sheep. Penicillin is an old commonly used drug. I use it commonly for treating what I consider crud infections, opening abscesses, after assisting a difficult birth, repairing a prolapsed uterus. Also use it in conjunction with Nuflor or oxytetracycline 200 to treat mastitis and prevent gangrene Gangrene mastitis may be treated successfully in early stages; however, medical intervention by a veterinarian should be sought. Prevention: Control starts with protecting the herd. Start by maintaining good herd status. Cull infected animals. Introduce an animal from herds that have a good herd history and reputable source

Gangrenous Mastitis In Dogs

Studies on gangrenous mastitis in goat

  1. With gangrenous mastitis, the affected side will eventually slough off, leaving a wound in poor seasons, the size and fullness of the udder will be reduced, as well as the volume of milk. Extra care is needed as some wet ewes will be producing very little milk, especially if lamb marking i
  2. 28) True or False: Ewes with gangrenous mastitis often survive with the udder returning to normal milk production. 29) Signs of moderate clinical mastitis include: a) changes to the appearance of the milk and udder, ewe is healthy b) changes to the appearance of the milk and udder, ewe is sic
  3. ants. In addition, S. aureus conta

Sheep Diseases: Symptoms & Treatment for Common Diseases

Gangrenous mastitis, also called Black Mastitis, is a bacterial infection of the mammary gland, in most cases caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Affected goats are in pain and have high fever for a short period, but soon become hypothermic. The udder is hard, swollen, and painful. Initially it is hot, but then it becomes cold both acute clinical mastitis (gangrenous mastitis) and subclinical mastitis (10, 44). In both forms of mas-titis there is a qualitative and quantitative decline in milk production (6, 7). The results of many studies of clinical mastitis indicate the high prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus: 17 to 57% isolated bacteria a

Gangrenous Mastitis In a Sheep - YouTub

Gangrenous mastitis حالة غرغرينا فى الضرع - YouTubeExam 2 Repro at Ross University School Of Veterinary

The role of Mannheimia species in ovine mastitis

Difference in virulence between Staphylococcus aureus

A total of 50 does were used to determine selected hematological and biochemical parameters with special references to oxidative stress markers, acute phase protein profiles, and proinflammatory cytokines in healthy and gangrenous mastitis affected does. Animals were divided into two equal groups represented as clinically healthy (control) and diseased groups, respectively Gangrenous dermatitis (GD) is a disease that affects poultry (layers, chickens, and turkeys) caused by Clostridia and Staphylococcus aureus, either alone or in combination.It is an opportunistic disease and its presence indicates that something is not going well in the farm Mastitis in the Ewe by Helen A. Swartz, Ph.D, State Sheep, Goat and Small Livestock Specialist DEFINITION Mastitis is defined as an inflammation of the mammary gland or udder of the ewe. The term mastitis is from the Greek word mastos, for breast, and itis, for inflammation of. The response to injury to the udder of sheep is called inflammation Gangrenous mastitis; Metritis; Aspiration pneumonia; Melanin deposits in the oesophagus and adrenal glands in older sheep are a common finding on postmortem examination. Multifocal deposits of melanin in the liver of a calf is known as Melanosis maculosa. It is common in calves and it usually disappears after the first year of age Copper toxicity in sheep Diarrhea (scours) in small ruminants General health care of sheep and goats Heat stress in sheep and goats Infectious causes of abortion in ewes Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (pink eye) Mastitis in ewes and does Milk fever strikes. Natural and homemade remedies (2021) An overview of sheep diseases (2015

PPT - MASTITIS CONTROL, PREVENTION, AND TREATMENT IN SHEEP

This section deals with the specific conditions affecting sheep. Each disease or condition chapter includes information covering causes, symptoms, treatment, control, prevention, welfare implications and good practice based on current knowledge, with a particular emphasis on our sustainable livestock principles (available in the top right hand corner of the website) Mastitis is inflammation of the breast or udder, usually associated with breastfeeding. Symptoms typically include local pain and redness. There is often an associated fever and general soreness. Onset is typically fairly rapid and usually occurs within the first few months of delivery. Complications can include abscess formation.. Risk factors include poor latch, cracked nipples, use of a. gested that clinical mastitis is one of the most significant disease problems they face, with peracute and gangrenous mastitis a common occurrence during lactation (Barber S, Allen J, Mansell P, Browning G: 2006, Mastitis in the ewe. In: Proceedings of the Australian Sheep Veterinarians 2006 Conferences, pp. 127-132. Australian Sheep. what is the duration of lactation in sheep and goats. goats: 290-305 days lambs: 180-290 days; ewes will raise lambs for the first 1-2 months -get outbreaks of mastitis during the transition from raising lambs to being milked by hand. what can cause udder edema-udder edema can be caused by early lactation, infection, or mastitis.