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# Light wave amplitude determines the

### optics - What is the amplitude of a light wave? - Physics

1. So technically, the more intense a light wave is at a point, the more its amplitude. What is the intensity Intensity is inversely proportional to the A^2 of a wave. If you know the intensity, then the amplitude can be found using this formula I=1/2*p v w*A^2 where p is density, v, w is angular velocity, v is speed of wave
2. es our perception of_____. a. brightness. b. color. c. meaning. d. distance. 2. The blind spot in your retina is located where a. there are rods but no cones. b. there are cones but no rods. c. the optic nerve leaves the eye. d. the bipolar cells meet..
3. Amplitude is measured in metres (m). The greater the amplitude of a wave, the more energy it carries. When amplitude increases so does the perceived vividness of a colour. Whilst the perceived brightness of a colour depends on the amplitude of a light wave, brightness is also somewhat influenced by wavelength. So for example yellows tend to.
4. es its [ {Blank}], and the amplitude of light deter
5. ed by its source and described by the shape of its wavefront, i.e. , the locus of points of constant phase. If energy density drops as r2and the amplitude of the wave must decrease as 1 r.The equation for a spherical wave is f[x,y,z,t]=f[r,t]=A[r]cos[kr∓ωt] = A 0

AMPLITUDE AND WAVELENGTH Two physical characteristics of a wave are amplitude and wavelength. The amplitude of a wave is the height of a wave as measured from the highest point on the wave (peak or crest) to the lowest point on the wave (trough). Wavelength refers to the length of a wave from one peak to the next In a light wave, amplitude determines the _____ of the light, while wavelength and frequency determine the _____ of the light. 1st blank: Brightness 2nd blank: Color. What is white light? How do we know this? White light consists of the three main colors, blue, green, and red. We know this because when you shine a white light into it, it breaks.

### (Get Answer) - 1. The amplitude of a light wave determines ..

Amplitude is the maximum displacement of the light wave. This treatment of light assumes that it behaves as a wave. If we were treating it as a particle (a photon) we would talk about the energy of the particle being proportional to the frequency of the light. Blue photons have more energy than red photons The stronger the magnitude of a light wave, the more vibrant it looks. AMPLITUDE OF LIGHT WAVE: The amplitude of a light wave is directly correlated with how bright it is- therefore one can assume the sun may have the highest amplitude there is Depends on a light wave amplitude. So, like the amplitude off a lightweight determines our perception of brightness. And the amplitude off sound wave determines our perception off loudness. So the amplitude all for sound wave determined our perception off This preview shows page 76 - 79 out of 85 pages. A light wave's amplitude, or height, determines its intensity (Intensity influences brightness) The Eye Light enters the eye through the cornea, A light wave's amplitude, or height, determines its intensity (Intensity influences brightness) The Eye Light enters the eye through the. In the classical picture, light is an electromagnetic wave and the amplitude of the electric/magnetic fields is the property you talk about. In the quantum picture, light is made up of photons and the number of photons describe the amplitude

The amplitude of a light wave determines our perception of a. brightness. b. color. c. meaning. d. distance There are two properties of a vibration which is regular and the frequency and the amplitude which affect the way it sounds. The Amplitude is the vibration of size and this determines how loud the sound is. Frequency is the vibration speed and this determines the sound's pitch. Share this with your friend In the visual system, a light wave's wavelength is generally associated with color, and its amplitude is associated with brightness. In the auditory system, a sound's frequency is associated with pitch, and its amplitude is associated with loudness. Question # Amplitude in waves means the maximum distance from the equilibrium, it is a basic property that exists in all waves just like frequency and wavelength 102 - Wave AmplitudeIn this video Paul Andersen explains how the amplitude of a wave is a measure of the energy of the wave. He gives several examples of wa..

### Amplitude - Light, Colour, Visio

In the wave picture of light, intensity of light is determined by square of the amplitude of wave. what determine the intensity of light in the photon picture of light The amplitude of a sound wave is the measure of the height of the wave. The amplitude of a sound wave can be defined as the loudness or the amount of maximum displacement of vibrating particles of the medium from their mean position when the sound is produced. It is the distance between crest or trough and the mean position of the wave

### The wavelength of light determines its [{Blank}], and the

• ute pressure difference that we perceive as sound. Let's discuss the characteristics of sound waves like amplitude, frequency, wavelength, and timbre. 4,86,522
• es the brightness of light wave? The color or hue of light depends on its wavelength, the distance between the peaks of its waves. The brightness of light is related to intensity or the amount of light an object emits or reflects. Brightness depends on light wave amplitude, the height of light waves
• e the electric field amplitude in the light wave, assu
• g wave undulates with a varying local wavelength that depends in part on the depth of the sea floor compared to the wave height. The analysis of the wave can be based upon comparison of the local wavelength with the local water depth
• The tutorial initializes with a visible light wave appearing in the window having a wavelength of 650 nanometers (red light) and amplitude of 61 candelas. Energies associated with waves in the tutorial appear beneath the window and are given in units of kJ/mole
• es our perception of _____. a. brightness. b. color. c. meaning. d. distanc
• ed by square of the amplitude of wave. What deter
• Polarized Light Waveforms. The tutorial initializes with two orthogonal sine waves (the electric vector components of the waves are colored red and blue) traveling from left to right in the window, and having a 90-degree (one-quarter wavelength) out-of-phase relationship. Circumscribing the mutually perpendicular waves is a helical black line.
• The amplitude of a light wave shows the light's brightness relative to waves of similar wavelength
• e the loudness of the sound. The amplitude of a light wave shows the light's brightness relative to waves of similar wavelength
• es Its Purity Or Richness Of Color. True Or False? Question: The Amplitude Of A Light Wave Deter
• es the volume of the sound, and the wavelength deter

### AMPLITUDE AND WAVELENGTH - Lumen Learnin

• Amplitude Some waves are very high, while others are barely noticeable. The distance the wave rises depends on the amplitude of the wave. Amplitude is the maximum distance the medium (the material through which a wave travels) moves away from its rest position. The higher the wave moves up-and-down as it vibrates, the larger the amplitude of.
• AMPLITUDE AND WAVELENGTH. Two physical characteristics of a wave are amplitude and wavelength. The amplitude of a wave is the height of a wave as measured from the highest point on the wave (peak or crest) to the lowest point on the wave (trough). Wavelength refers to the length of a wave from one peak to the next
• The amplitude or height of a wave is measured from the peak to the trough. The wavelength is measured from peak to peak. Wavelength is directly related to the frequency of a given wave form. Frequency refers to the number of waves that pass a given point in a given time period and is often expressed in terms of hertz (Hz), or cycles per second.
• amplitude of a transverse wave is half the distance between a crest and trough as shown in Figure 5.As the distance between 698 CHAPTER 24 Waves, Sound, and Light Wave Speed The speed of a wave depends on the medium in which the wave travels. The faster waves travel, the more crests or compressions pass by you each second. You can calculate th
• the product of an amplitude and a sinusoidal time varying wave. In the case of light waves the frequency of the time varying part is so large that our eyes and most instruments see only the ampliutde part
• answered: musfirahkhurram. The brightness of light is related to intensity or the amount of light an object emits or reflects. Brightness depends on light wave amplitude, the height of light waves. Brightness is also somewhat influenced by wavelength. Explanation

### Waves Test Study Guide Science Flashcards Quizle

Light Wave - Common type of electromagnetic wave; do not need a medium to travel. The distance from one crest to another crest or from one trough to another trough on a transverse wave, Amplitude - The distance a wave travels from resting (how high the crest gets) determined by energy in the wave, Speed of Light - 300,000,000 m/s - fastest. The amplitude of a wave is the distance between a point on one wave and the Which one of the following determines the color of a light wave? wavelength and amplitude amplitude only wavelength and frequency interference patterns. WAVES TEST REVIEW.notebook 14 September 29, 2015 A place where molecules are far apart i

The amplitude of the light wave describes how the wave propagates in position and time. Mathematically, we can write it as a sine wave where the angle of the sine function is a linear To determine the effect of an optical filter on the light in such a system, the incident light. What is the amplitude of a light wave? The amplitude of a wave tells us about the intensity or brightness of the light relative to other light waves of the same wavelength. Both Wave 1 and Wave 2 have the same wavelength but different amplitudes. The wavelength of light is an important property for it is this that determines the nature of the.

The amplitude of a wave determines how loud a sound is and how bright light is. Wavelength is the length of one wave. Frequency is how many waves occur in 1 second. The wavelength and frequency of a light wave determine color. A light wave is measured in nanometers. Different wavelengths produce different colors. Higher wavelengths produce. Four key properties of a light wave are the amplitude, phase, polarization, and optical impedance. The birefringence of the meta-atom determines the latitude of the output state,. The amplitude of a water wave is just the height of the water level above or below the mean water level. The amplitude of a light wave is just the strength of the electric and magnetic fields that comprise it. Determine how each component wave evolves in time by multiplying it by a phase factor suitably scaled to its period. 3

### What is the difference between light frequency and - Quor

Brightness depends on light wave amplitude, the height of light waves. Brightness is also somewhat influenced by wavelength. Yellow light tends to look brighter than reds or blues. Saturation or colorfulness depends on light complexity, the range of wavelengths in light. The color of a single wavelength is pure spectral color Amplitude is the height of the wave and often related to power. High electric field = High magnetic field = High amplitude = High power. Phase. Phase is not a property of just one RF signal but instead involves the relationship between two or more signals that share the same frequency. The phase involves the relationship between the position of. The amplitude of a sound wave determines its intensity, or loudness. The frequency of a sound wave determines its pitch, with higher frequencies producing higher notes. For example, the open sixth string of a guitar vibrates at a frequency of 82.407 hertz (cycles per second) and produces a lower pitch. The open first string vibrates at a. Since wave frequency is the number of waves per second, and the period is essentially the number of seconds per wave, the relationship between frequency and period is. f = 1 T. f = 1 T. 13.1. or. T = 1 f, T = 1 f, 13.2. just as in the case of harmonic motion of an object The amplitude of a wave is its maximum disturbance from its undisturbed position. curriculum-key-fact It is important to note that the amplitude is not the distance between the top and bottom of a.

### What is AMPLITUDE OF LIGHT WAVE? definition of AMPLITUDE

Determine the difference between the two distances you just measured; let's call this difference of the two distances ������������. Analysis B1: Take one individual trace the light wave amplitude of against time that you collected above and determine the time peri������������ od for one full cycle.Determine the frequency of the light wave by usin 2.4 A He-Ne laser beam has power 1 mW and beam diameter 1 mm. Determine the electric field amplitude in the light wave, assuming that the light intensity is uniform across the beam profil Ted's Response: Most people probably would say that a light's color is always dependent on its wavelength. But this is true only if the light is traveling through only one medium, such as air. Indeed, in a single medium, different wavelengths of light appear as different colors; and the longer the wavelength, the lower the frequency of the light

source of the light wave determines frequency. For example, a particular electron transition in an excited iron atom releases a photon with a frequency of 5.7 X 10 The Amplitude of a Light Wave Amplitude is the height or maximum displacement of a wave. It is related to the intensity of the light and to the energy in the wave. The relationshi The amplitude of a wave is described as the maximum amount of displacement that is carried out by the particle on the medium form it'sposition of rest. It is the distance from the original position to the crest. The quantity of energy that is transferred by a wave is related to the amplitude of the wave. A wave which is high has the higher. The wave energy is determined by the wave amplitude. Figure 16.4. 1: Energy carried by a wave depends on its amplitude. With electromagnetic waves, doubling the E fields and B fields quadruples the energy density u and the energy flux uc. For a plane wave traveling in the direction of the positive x -axis with the phase of the wave chosen so. Definitions. Depending on context, wave height may be defined in different ways: For a sine wave, the wave height H is twice the amplitude: =. For a periodic wave, it is simply the difference between the maximum and minimum of the surface elevation z = η(x - c p t): = {()} {()}, with c p the phase speed (or propagation speed) of the wave. The sine wave is a specific case of a periodic wave

Amplitude of Light Wave. Post by Arya Adibi 1K » Fri Oct 09, 2020 5:54 pm . What property does amplitude of a light wave dictate? For example, in the lecture on 10/9 we analyzed some examples of oscillating waves, two of them had the same frequency and wavelength, except one of the two had an amplitude double that of the first. Does this mean. Amplitude and wavelength. Two physical characteristics of a wave are amplitude and wavelength (Figure 5.4). The amplitude of a wave is the height of a wave as measured from the highest point on the wave (peak or crest) to the lowest point on the wave (trough). Wavelength refers to the length of a wave from one peak to the next Photoelectric Effect Up: Wave-Particle Duality Previous: Representation of Waves via Classical Light Waves Consider a classical, monochromatic, linearly polarized, plane light wave, propagating through a vacuum in the -direction.It is convenient to characterize a light wave (which is, of course, a type of electromagnetic wave) by specifying its associated electric field Amplitude is the measurement of the energy carried by any wave. It is the furthest distance that the particles move from the wave's undisturbed position, or when the wave is flat, due to the energy passing through it. The greater the amplitude of the wave, the higher the level of energy that is carried by the wave The amplitude of the wave is the magnitude of the electric field, not a distance. The energy contained in the wave is the square of the amplitude of the wave. The frequency of the oscillation determines the wavelength of the wave. In classical theory, there is no relationship between energy and frequency

### SOLVED:The amplitude of a light wave determines

• ed onto polarization TV camera means for measuring the intensities I R, I G and I B of said light wave field along three different directions designated as r, g and b, respectively, each of said directions differing from the other by 60° wherein said intensities are related.
• e and record which combination of settings give you the sharpest display. (c) Select 'Light Meter' (this is the graph display of Electric Field vs time) and place only one sensor in the path of light co
• e the ratio of the maximum and
• See Page 1. The magnetic field in a sinusoidal light wave has an amplitude of 3.3 × 10−7 T. The intensity of the wave is: A. 1.7 × 10−4W/m2 B. 13W/m2 C. 27W/m2 D. 1.0 × 105W/m2 E. 4.0 × 1010W/m2 E Light with an intensity of 1kW/m2 falls normally on a surface and is completely reflected
• ed by measuring the radiation transmitted by one or several polarizers with three different azimuth angles. A modified TV camera is used having its usually provided tri-color filters replaced by polarization filters whose azimuth angles differ from each other by 60° respectively  ### A light waves amplitude or height determines its intensity

• es the energy content of the wave. amplitude. a wave whose amplitude is the sum of the amplitudes of two individual waves
• Physics Class 11 Notes Physical Optics Chapter 9 for kpk 20. After interacting the crystal, the rays will refract and will reinforce each other if the path difference between the two incident rays is equal to λ or multiple of λ. Ray II covers longer distance as compare to Ray I, so the path difference is gives as. BC + CB' = m�
• A hurdle that the NTU scientists had to overcome was that these tiniest superoscillations do not appear in the amplitude of the light wave, but in its phase. To map out the phase of the light field, the scientists had to devise a special technique that could compare the intensities produced by different polarization states of laser light
• e the dispersion relation ω = ω (k) for an electron. (Assume that ω > 0
• es the nature of the light. Red light has a different. light wave. refraction (Light) Standards. 4-PS4-1. In sound, amplitude determines the loudness of the sound. In light, amplitude determines the brightness. I show students these two photographs and ask them to think about the difference between amplitude and wavelength The amplitude of a light wave is related to its intensity. Intensity is the absolute measure of a light wave's power density. Brightness is the relative intensity as perceived by the average human eye. The frequency of a light wave is related to its color. Color is such a complex topic that it has its own section in this book B. because. The amplitude of a wave tells us about the intensity or brightness of the light relative to other light waves of the same wavelength. Both Wave 1 and Wave 2 have the same wavelength but different amplitudes. The wavelength of light is an important property for it is this that determines the nature of the light The energy of a light wave is directly proportionate to frequency and inversely proportionate to wavelength. This is due to the energy of a Photon being equal to hf. f is a constant, so the greater the frequency, the greater the energy. I get that. The intensity of a light wave is based on the wave's amplitude. Why Intensityof light is the brightness of light. Intensity of light depends on the amplitude of electromagnetic waves. The higher the amplitude, the greater the intensity of light. Light travels at a speed of 300,000,000 m/s in a vacuum. Nothingin the universe moves faster than the speed of light

### Do Light Waves Have Amplitude? Physics Forum

A light wave has a frequency of 5.4 × 1014 cycles Increasing the amplitude of an electromagnetic radiation increases its (A) frequency (C) intensity (B) speed (D) period 42. The color of visible light is determined by its (A) frequency (C) intensity (B) amplitude (D) speed Version A WV2-10 Relation between intensity and amplitude. Now, the intensity I (``brightness'' in the case of light) of the pattern at the observation screen is a just a measure of the amount of energy arriving at each point on the screen per unit time. In a real experiment, the screen is a two-dimensional surface A light wave does not have a wave length. A light wave travels through the vacuum of space. Tags: Question 5 . An electromagnetic wave has a louder amplitude than a matter wave. An electromagnetic wave travels through space, but a matter wave cannot. Color is determined by wavelength which directly correlates to. answer choices. The color of light is determined by ____ of the light waves. a. the medium c. the frequency b. the speed d. the amplitude

Which question will help the student determine if it is an electromagnetic wave? answer choices . Is it a light wave? the length of the light wave as it approaches the medium. the reflection of the light wave off the medium's surface. Tags: Wave1 and Wave 2have the same amplitude, but Wave 1 has more energy because it has a greater. Summary. Video 1.1.7: An overview of the wave nature of light. Light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation move through a vacuum with a constant speed, c, of 2.998 × 10 8 m s −1. This radiation shows wavelike behavior, which can be characterized by a frequency, ν, and a wavelength, λ, such that c = λν The amplitude of a wave determines how loud a sound is and how bright light is. Wavelength is the length of one wave. Frequency is how many waves occur in 1 second. The wavelength and frequency of a light wave determine color. A light wave is measured in nanometers. Different wavelengths produce different colors. Higher wavelengths produce brighte The direction the light travels is determined by the direction of the vector cross product E×B. In the following sections, we will try to explain polarization phenomena in terms of both mathematical expressions for wave amplitudes and symmetry. When applicable, symmetry arguments are the simplest and usually easiest to understand Determine the amplitude, period, and wavelength of such a wave. See Answer Amplitude = 16 cm (Amplitude is the distance from the rest position to the crest position which is half the vertical distance from a trough to a crest.) Wavelength = 96 c the light wave, as shown in Figure 1(a). The magnetic ﬂeld vector B vibrates in a direction perpendicular to that of the electric ﬂeld vector and to the direction of propagation of the wave, as shown in Figure 1(b). The magnetic ﬂeld is very weak and therefore it is ig-nored in our study of polarization. In ﬂgures 1a an The intensity of light is proportional to the square of the electric eld amplitude. Thus the intensity transmitted by both Polaroids can be expressed as: I( ) ˘=E2 y0 = E 2 cos2 ected angle is graphed to determine the angle 6. at which the light intensity is a minimum. This is Brewster's Angle, which is used to calculat

= Amplitude. ϕ = Phase. Proof of Euler's Formula A light wave has both electric and magnetic 3D vector fields: Wind patterns: 2D vector field. And it can propagate in any direction. Div, Grad, Curl, and all that. Types of 3D vector derivatives: The Del operator This equation determines the properties of most wave phenomena, not only light waves. In many real-world situations, the velocity of a wave depends on its amplitude, so v = v(f). In this case, the solutions can be hard to determine. Fortunately, this is not the case for electromagnetic waves. 22 22 2 1 0 v ff x • Brightness of a light wave is determined by amplitude of light wave. Brightness ~ (Amplitude)2 So: Bright red light: Dim red light: glass Bright blue light: Dim blue light: Ex: [We know that if spring wave loses energy due to friction while traveling v, f , λ do not change. Amplitude decreases.] For EM wave there is no friction. So why is th The interference is constructive if the amplitude of ψ(,x t)is greater than the individual ones (Figure 14.1.1b), and destructive if smaller (Figure 14.1.1c). As an example, consider the superposition of the following two waves at t =0 amplitude (A) labeled correctly? A) frequency B)amplitude C) wavelength D) speed 3.The energy of a sound wave is most closely related to the wave's A) 4.0 s B) 6.0 s C) 8 cm D)4 cm 4.The graph below represents the displacement of a particle in a medium over a period of time. The amplitude of the wave is A) mass, only B)energy, only C) both mass.

A light wave with an electric field amplitude of 2E 0 and a phase constant of zero is to be combined with one of the following waves. Which of these combinations produces the least intensity? A. wave A has an amplitude of E 0 and a phase constant of zero . B A wave is a repeating pattern. It repeats itself in a periodic and regular fashion over both time and space. And the length of one such spatial repetition (known as a wave cycle) is the wavelength. The wavelength can be measured as the distance from crest to crest or from trough to trough. In fact, the wavelength of a wave can be measured as. The frequency of a light wave is how many waves move past a certain point during a set amount of time -- usually one second is used. Frequency is generally measured in Hertz, which are units of cycles per second. Color is the frequency of visible light, and it ranges from 430 trillion Hertz (which is red) to 750 trillion Hertz (which is violet) We can determine a number of wave properties from the graph. Amplitude The amplitude of a wave is a measure of the displacement of the wave from its rest position. The amplitude is shown on the graph below. Amplitude is generally calculated by looking on a graph of a wave and measuring the height of the wave from the resting position There are three measurable properties of wave motion: amplitude, wavelength, and frequency, the number of vibrations per second. The relation between the wavelength λ (Greek lambda) and frequency of a wave ν (Greek nu) is determined by the propagation velocity v. v = ν λ. Problem Example 1

Rotating the analyzer transmission axis by 30-degrees with respect to that of the polarizer reduces the amplitude of a light wave passing through the pair, as illustrated in Figure 6(b). In this case, the polarized light transmitted through the polarizer can be resolved into horizontal and vertical components by vector mathematics to determine. */ Light waves across the electromagnetic spectrum behave in similar ways. When a light wave encounters an object, they are either transmitted, reflected, absorbed, refracted, polarized, diffracted, or scattered depending on the composition of the object and the wavelength of the light light - light - Characteristics of waves: From ripples on a pond to deep ocean swells, sound waves, and light, all waves share some basic characteristics. Broadly speaking, a wave is a disturbance that propagates through space. Most waves move through a supporting medium, with the disturbance being a physical displacement of the medium. The time dependence of the displacement at any single. In the meantime, the wave travels from the slits to the screen, and the amplitude of the wave determines the probability of where we'll find the photon when we do measure its location. I've put this last bit in bold print, because it's a central fact of wave­particle duality, whether we're dealing with photons, electrons, neutrinos, or whatever Leveled, non-fiction, and print-friendly science article - Light is a mysterious thing, but that doesn't mean that we can't learn about it while we ride up the crests of a wave and back down through the troughs. This article also explains how to brag to your friend about how extreme a hill is with amplitude and how far you traveled by measuring the wavelength of the light wave Amplitude, frequency, wavenumber, and phase shift are properties of waves that govern their physical behavior. Each describes a separate parameter in the most general solution of the wave equation. Together, these properties account for a wide range of phenomena such as loudness, color, pitch, diffraction, and interference. Waves propagating in some physical quantity. The reason that different waves of light appear to be different colors of light is because the color of a light wave depends on its wavelength. For example, the wavelength of blue light is about 450 nanometers, while the wavelength of red light is about 700 nanometers

Click here������to get an answer to your question ️ Explain the following, giving reasons:(i) When monochromatic light is incident on a surface separating two media, the reflected and refracted light both have the same frequency as the incident frequency.(ii) When light travels from a rarer to a denser medium, the speed decreases. Does this decrease in speed imply a reduction in the energy. Features of a wave. A wave is a movement or oscillation that spreads from a defined point, moving energy as it progresses. Scientist use a standard set of terminology to describe the feature of waves. The following illustration shows a cross-section through a transverse wave *. Use the switches below the main window to label the features. This distance is known as the amplitude of the wave, and is the characteristic height of the wave, above or below the equilibrium position. Normally the symbol A is used to represent the amplitude of a wave. Determine the amplitude. The definition of the amplitude is the height of a crest above the equilibrium position. The still water mark. Problem 8.6 A 50-MHz plane wave with electric field amplitude of 50 V/m is normally incident in air onto a semi-infinite, perfect dielectric medium with = 36. Determine the following: (b) The average power densities of the incident and reflected waves. The distance in the air medium from the boundary to the nearest minimum o Wave amplitude determines brightness (for light waves) or loudness (for sound waves), and both of those can decrease as those waves pass through non-vacuum media. Just think of sunlight getting dimmer when it passes through sheer curtains, or a loud sound being muted from farther away. You can use that same equation as before, v=f lambda, to. The circumference of a circle = π times its diameter. The diameter is 2 times the radius, so C = 2πR. Now when the radius equals 1, C = 2π. The meaning of this is that any angle can be expressed in radians as an arclength on a circle of radius 1. 2π radians = 360 degrees